Extension Functions


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    SPARQL allows non-standard, custom extension functions to be used within queries. In order to provide an implementation to these extension functions, Comunica allows developers to plug them in via the context.

    Take into account that when writing SPARQL queries with extension functions, that these queries will not be portable to other types of query engines anymore, as these extension functions may not be standardized.

    Dictionary-based extension functions

    The easiest way to plug in extension functions to Comunica is by using the extensionFunctions context entry in a JavaScript application:

    import {DataFactory} from "rdf-data-factory";
    
    const DF = new DataFactory();
    
    const result = await myEngine.query(`
    PREFIX func: <http://example.org/functions#>
    SELECT ?caps WHERE {
      ?s ?p ?o.
      BIND (func:to-upper-case(?o) AS ?caps)
    }
    `, {
      sources: ['https://www.rubensworks.net/'],
      extensionFunctions: {
        'http://example.org/functions#to-upper-case'(args: RDF.Term[]) {
          const arg = args[0];
          if (arg.termType === 'Literal' && arg.datatype.value === 'http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string') {
            return DF.literal(arg.value.toUpperCase(), arg.datatype);
          }
          return arg;
        },
      },
    });
    

    Within this extensionFunctions dictionary, you can provide any number of extension functions. These functions may even be async.

    Callback-based extension functions

    If function names are not known beforehand, or the dictionary-based format is not usable for whatever reason, then the callback-based extensionFunctionCreator entry may be used:

    import {DataFactory} from "rdf-data-factory";
    
    const DF = new DataFactory();
    
    const result = await myEngine.query(`
    PREFIX func: <http://example.org/functions#>
    SELECT ?caps WHERE {
      ?s ?p ?o.
      BIND (func:to-upper-case(?o) AS ?caps)
    }
    `, {
      sources: ['https://www.rubensworks.net/'],
      extensionFunctionCreator: (funcTerm: RDF.NamedNode) => {
        if (funcTerm.value === 'http://example.org/functions#to-upper-case') {
          return (args: RDF.Term[]) => {
            const arg = args[0];
            if (arg.termType === 'Literal' && arg.datatype.value === 'http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string') {
              return DF.literal(arg.value.toUpperCase(), arg.datatype);
            }
            return arg;
          };
        }
      },
    });
    

    The extensionFunctionCreator is invoked upon any occurrence of an extension function, and is called with the extension function name, wrapped within an RDF/JS named node. The return type of this function is expected to be a function with the same signature as the values of the extensionFunction dictionary, or undefined.