Supported specifications

On this page

    This page summarizes the specifications Comunica implements.

    Query standards

    The following standard query specifications are supported:

    SPARQL 1.1 Query Language
    SPARQL 1.1 Update
    SPARQL 1.1 Service Description
    SPARQL 1.1 Federated Query
    SPARQL 1.1 Query Results JSON Format
    SPARQL Query Results XML Format (Second Edition)
    SPARQL 1.1 Query Results CSV and TSV Formats
    SPARQL 1.1 Protocol
    SPARQL next SEP 0002 - Excluding ADJUST function
    RDF-star and SPARQL-star

    The following notable specifications are not supported yet:

    SPARQL 1.1 Entailment Regimes
    SPARQL 1.1 Graph Store HTTP Protocol

    Serializing SPARQL results

    SPARQL query results can be serialized in different formats. For all of these supported formats, the following are standards:

    Media typeDescription
    application/sparql-results+jsonThe SPARQL/JSON results format.
    application/sparql-results+xmlThe SPARQL/XML results format.
    text/csvThe SPARQL/CSV results format.
    text/tab-separated-valuesThe SPARQL/TSV results format.
    All serializers work in a streaming manner.

    Next to these, RDF serializations are supported, as shown below.

    Serializing RDF

    RDF triples/quads can be serialized via the following RDF serializations:

    Media typeDescription
    application/trigThe TriG RDF serialization.
    application/n-quadsThe N-Quads RDF serialization.
    text/turtleThe Turtle RDF serialization.
    application/n-triplesThe N-Triples RDF serialization.
    text/n3The Notation3 serialization.
    application/ld+jsonThe JSON-LD RDF serialization.
    All serializers work in a streaming manner.

    Parsing RDF

    RDF triples/quads can be provided as input via the following RDF serializations:

    NameMedia typeExtensions
    N-Quadsapplication/n-quads.nq, .nquads
    Turtletext/turtle.ttl, .turtle
    N-Triplesapplication/n-triples.nt, .ntriples
    JSON-LDapplication/ld+json, application/json.json, .jsonld
    RDF/XMLapplication/rdf+xml.rdf, .rdfxml, .owl
    RDFa and script RDF data tags HTML/XHTMLtext/html, application/xhtml+xml.html, .htm, .xhtml, .xht
    RDFa in SVG/XMLimage/svg+xml,application/xml.xml, .svg, .svgz
    Microdatatext/html, application/xhtml+xml.html, .htm, .xhtml, .xht
    All parsers work in a streaming manner.


    Alignment with other JavaScript libraries is achieved via the following RDF/JS specifications:

    RDF/JS Query specification
    RDF/JS Stream interfaces specification
    RDF/JS Data model specification