SPARQL Architecture

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    This document gives an overview of the architecture that implements SPARQL query execution in Comunica. This builds upon the core architecture of actors, mediators, and buses.


    The figure below shows an overview of the most relevant buses and actors that are used in Comunica SPARQL. Some buses such as Query Operation contain a large number of subscribed actors, which is why the figure below only shows a few as illustration.

    Click on the figure to view it in full screen, or view the PDF version.

    SPARQL Architecture

    Data flow for a query execution

    For a given SPARQL query, the following logic flow occurs: (some parts are omitted for simplicity)

    • Init: All Comunica engines start here. This is where they accept generic input parameters, such as CLI arguments.
      • Query Process: Extracts things like query and output format from input arguments.
        • Context Preprocess: A bus in which actors can optionally modify the query context.
          • Query Source Identify: Identifies sources using the Query Source Identify bus, where query sources can accept query operations.
            • RDF/JS: Translates the array of sources in the query context into the union of quad streams by resolving each source separately in the RDF Resolve Quad Pattern bus.
            • Hypermedia: Resolves query operations by interpreting hypermedia links and controls.
              • Dereference RDF: Dereferences a path or URL into a stream of quads, which internally makes use of several parsers in the RDF Parse bus, and it uses data lookup actors from the Dereference bus.
              • RDF Metadata: Extracts the quads relevant for metadata from the stream of data quads.
              • RDF Metadata Extract: Create an object with metadata for a given metadata quad stream.
              • RDF Metadata Accumulate: Merge the metadata object with any previous metadata (only applies if multiple links are being followed).
              • RDF Resolve Hypermedia Links: Determines which links should be followed from the metadata of the current source.
              • RDF Resolve Hypermedia Links Queue: Creates a link queue that enables different strategies for queueing links.
              • Query Source Identify Hypermedia: Handle a source based on the extracted metadata.
                • None: The source is considered a raw RDF file, for which all data quads matching the query operation are returned.
                • SPARQL: The source is considered a SPARQL endpoint if it has a service description, for which we use the SPARQL protocol.
                • QPF: The source is considered a Triple/Quad Pattern Fragments interface.
        • SPARQL Parse: Parsing the SPARQL query into SPARQL algebra.
        • Optimize Query Operation: Applies optional optimizations to the SPARQL algebra before actual execution.
        • Query Operation: Executes the query operation.
          • Join: Handles joins between multiple query operations via its own separate bus.
      • SPARQL Serialize: Serializes the query result into a text-based serialization.

    Click here for a full list of buses and actors.